Sunday, October 31, 2010

Communication Model: Reading Response Notes

A Communications Primer Ray & Charles Eames
  • A Word is a signal
  • Noise can be sound, motion, light source, quality, static, distortion of picture through transmitter
  • Redundancy counteracts noise
  • English = 1/2 redundant (This helps prevent distortion of language)
  • Message is a thought not words
  • Sound of word = signal can increase communication (ear decodes and delivers to the destination)
  • Increase power of transmitter through duplication
  • The receiver can distort the message
  • Knowledge of the code is essential (are other systems aside from redundancy and duplication) (Ex/ Waves = can tell a lot about something only if you know how the code)
  • Symbol = abstraction of an idea through personal (individuals who created the form) and anonymous (number of individuals who created the form) means.
  • Symbols can develop and evolve over time and some can remain the same as they are used through and to an idea
  • Compare to how our bodies receive information and produce action
  • "Communication is the responsibility of decision all the way down the line"
Visual Communication Theory Through Practice:
  • The Mathematical Theory of Communication from Shannon and Weaver (Bell Telephone Engineers) developed a theory that illustrated how to compress and send as much information down a channel as possible without losing the essential parts and affect meaning
  • Information Source->transmitter->noise source->receiver->destination
  • Three Levels of Problems in Communication:
  1. Level A: Technical = how accurately can we communicate our message? what system should we use to encode and decode our message? is that system universally compatible or does it require special equipment or knowledge?
  2. Level B: Semantic = how precisely does our choice of language symbols or codes convey the meaning we intend? How much of the message can be lost without meaning being lost as well? What language should we use?
  3. Level C: Effectiveness = Does the message affect behavior the way we want it to? What can we do if the required effect fails to happen?
  • Commercial Visual Communication Process: Client->Designer/Artefact->Noise Source->Media Outlet->Audience
  • Feedback = effectiveness of a design or message
  • Technical 3 Levels added to model: Client->Media planners[technical] and market researchers[effectiveness level]->designer/Artefact[Semantic Level]->Noise Source->Media Outlet->Audience->Feedback->back to Media planners[technical] and market researchers[effectiveness level]
  • Noise = anything that gets added to the signal between sender and receiver is known as this
  • Level A: is an obvious problem liked smudged prints or bad craft
  • Level B: is caused by the receiver's cultural background and social group
  • Level C: noise can occur if a message or product is hard to pick out among lots of others
  • Modernism proved effectiveness without decoration but decoration can also be used in redundancy that visual communication needs
  • Redundancy = adds context, aids understanding, and offers an error check that fills in words we do not hear
  • Entropy = (opposite of redundancy) communication that uses technical language or unfamiliar visual language.
  • As entropic communication becomes familiar, it becomes redundant
  • Entropy has the power to change visual language
The Berlo Model of Communication:
  • Dyadic Communication = the relationship (two elements) between the source and receiver
  • Monadic (single unit) approach tells about the communication skill level, personal characteristics, etc....
  • Methods of verbal communication skills: 2 Encoding Skills: speaking and writing 2 Decodings Skills: listening and reading and thought or reasoning is crucial to both forms
  • Our ability to use language affects the thoughts themselves. (Ex/What we think about, how we think, whether we are thinking at all)
  • Communication Skills Involve: knowing and applying the code's grammar, knowing and using a broad vocabulary, knowing and applying the conventions, adapting the use of your code to your audience
  • Source Knowledge Level (apply equally to sender and receiver): His/Her Own Attitudes, ways in which s/he can produce or treat messages, the kinds of choices made about communication channels, the subject matter
  • Socio-Cultural Level: word choices made by people, purpose for communicating, meanings they attach to certain words, choice of receivers, channels used for individual messages
  • Source Attitudes(apply equally to sender and receiver): towards self, towards subject matter, towards receiver
  • The Message: Code = must decide which code to use, what elements of the code, what method of structuring elements of the code we will select, Content = material in the message that was selected by the source to express the purpose. Has elements and structure. Treatment = decisions which the source makes in selecting and arranging both code and content
  • Channel: what is available, how much money can be spent, what are the sources preferenced, which channels are received by most of the people, what channels have the most impact?
  • Source = communication skills, knowledge, social system, culture, attitudes
  • Message = elements + structure, content, treatment, code
  • Channel = seeing, hearing, touching, smelling, tasting
  • Receiver = communication skills, knowledge, social system, culture, attitudes

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